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中华人民共和国民事诉讼法(中英文对照)

2015-03-21 16:38  来源:   纠错

中华人民共和国民事诉讼法

(1991年4月9日第七届全国人民代表大会第四次会议通过 根据2007年10月28日第十届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第三十次会议《关于修改〈中华人民共和国民事诉讼法〉的决定》修正)

Civil Procedure Law of the People’s Republic of China

(Adopted on April 9, 1991 at the Fourth Session of the Seventh National People’s Congress, and revised according to the Decision of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress on Amending the Civil Procedure Law of the People’s Republic of China as adopted at the 30th Session of the Standing Committee of the 10th National People’s Congress)

第一编 总 则

Part One General Principles

第一章 任务、适用范围和基本原则

Chapter 1 Purposes, Scope of Regulation and Basic Principles

第一条 【立法依据】中华人民共和国民事诉讼法以宪法为根据,结合我国民事审判工作的经验和实际情况制定。

Article 1 The Civil Procedure Law of the People’s Republic of China is formulated according to the Constitution and in the light of the experience and actual conditions of adjudicating civil cases in our country.

第二条 【立法目的】中华人民共和国民事诉讼法的任务,是保护当事人行使诉讼权利,保证人民法院查明事实,分清是非,正确适用法律,及时审理民事案件,确认民事权利义务关系,制裁民事违法行为,保护当事人的合法权益,教育公民自觉遵守法律,维护社会秩序、经济秩序,保障社会主义建设事业顺利进行。

Article 2 The purposes of the Civil Procedure Law of the People’s Republic of China are to protect the litigation rights exercised by the parties, to ensure that the people’s courts find facts, to distinguish right from wrong, to apply the law correctly, to try civil cases promptly, to affirm the rights and obligations in civil affairs, to impose sanctions for civil wrong doings, to protect the lawful rights and interests of the parties, to educate citizens to voluntarily abide by the law, to maintain the social and economic order, and to guarantee the smooth progress of the socialist construction.

第三条 【适用范围】人民法院受理公民之间、法人之间、其他组织之间以及他们相互之间因财产关系和人身关系提起的民事诉讼,适用本法的规定。

Article 3 The provisions of this Law shall apply to all the civil litigation accepted by people’s courts regarding disputes over the status of property and personal relations among citizens, legal persons, or other organizations respectively and mutually between citizens, legal persons, or other organizations.

第四条 【空间效力】凡在中华人民共和国领域内进行民事诉讼,必须遵守本法。

Article 4 All those who involve in civil lawsuits within the territory of the People’s Republic of China must abide by this Law.

第五条 【外国人诉讼地位】外国人、无国籍人、外国企业和组织在人民法院起诉、应诉,同中华人民共和国公民、法人和其他组织有同等的诉讼权利义务。

外国法院对中华人民共和国公民、法人和其他组织的民事诉讼权利加以限制的,中华人民共和国人民法院对该国公民、企业和组织的民事诉讼权利,实行对等原则。

Article 5 Foreign nationals, stateless persons, foreign enterprises, or organizations, which initiate or respond to lawsuits in people’s courts, shall have the same litigation rights and obligations as the citizens, legal persons, or other organizations of the People’s Republic of China.

Should the courts of a foreign country impose restrictions on the civil litigation rights of the citizens, legal persons, or other organizations of the People’s Republic of China, the people’s courts of the People’s Republic of China shall follow the principle of reciprocity regarding the civil litigation rights of the citizens, enterprises, or organizations of that foreign country.

第六条 【法院独立审判】民事案件的审判权由人民法院行使。

人民法院依照法律规定对民事案件独立进行审判,不受行政机关、社会团体和个人的干涉。

Article 6 The adjudication authority over civil cases shall be exercised by the people’s courts only.

The people’s courts shall adjudicate civil cases independently according to law, and shall not be subject to any interference from an administrative organ, public organization, or individual.

第七条 【审理原则】人民法院审理民事案件,必须以事实为根据,以法律为准绳。

Article 7 The people’s courts must take the facts as the basis and take the law as the criterion when adjudicating civil cases.

第八条 【诉讼权利平等】民事诉讼当事人有平等的诉讼权利。人民法院审理民事案件,应当保障和便利当事人行使诉讼权利,对当事人在适用法律上一律平等。

Article 8 All parties to a civil litigation shall have equal litigation rights. The people’s courts shall, when adjudicating civil cases, guarantee and facilitate all parties to exercise their litigation rights, and apply the law equally to all parties.

第九条 【法院调解】人民法院审理民事案件,应当根据自愿和合法的原则进行调解;调解不成的,应当及时判决。

Article 9 When adjudicating civil cases, the people’s courts may mediate the disputes according to the principles of voluntariness and lawfulness; if a mediation agreement can not be reached, the courts shall render judgments without delay.

第十条 【审判制度】人民法院审理民事案件,依照法律规定实行合议、回避、公开审判和两审终审制度。

Article 10 When adjudicating civil cases, the people’s courts shall apply the systems of collegial panel, recusal, public trial, and “two trials and the second one is final”.

第十一条 【语言文字】各民族公民都有用本民族语言、文字进行民事诉讼的权利。

在少数民族聚居或者多民族共同居住的地区,人民法院应当用当地民族通用的语言、文字进行审理和发布法律文书

人民法院应当对不通晓当地民族通用的语言、文字的诉讼参与人提供翻译。

Article 11 Chinese citizens of all ethnicities shall have the right to use their native spoken and written languages in civil proceedings.

In the areas where an ethnic minority is concentrated or a number of different ethnic nationalities live together, the people’s courts shall conduct hearings and publish legal documents in the spoken and written languages commonly used by these people.

The people’s courts shall provide translations for any litigation participants who are not familiar with the spoken or written languages commonly used by the local people.

第十二条 【辩论权】人民法院审理民事案件时,当事人有权进行辩论。

Article 12 When adjudicating civil cases by the people’s court, the parties shall have the right to engage in argument.

第十三条 【处分权】当事人有权在法律规定的范围内处分自己的民事权利和诉讼权利。

Article 13 The parties to a civil litigation shall be entitled, within the scope stipulated by law, to dispose their rights of civil affairs and litigation.

第十四条 【法律监督】人民检察院有权对民事审判活动实行法律监督。

Article 14 The people’s procuratorates shall have the right to exercise legal supervision over the civil proceedings.

第十五条 【支持起诉】机关、社会团体、企业事业单位对损害国家、集体或者个人民事权益的行为,可以支持受损害的单位或者个人向人民法院起诉。

Article 15 If the civil rights and interests of the state, a collective, or an individual have been infringed, a state organ, public organization, enterprise, or institution may support the injured unit or individual to initiate legal action in a people’s court.

第十六条 【人民调解】人民调解委员会是在基层人民政府和基层人民法院指导下,调解民间纠纷的群众性组织。

人民调解委员会依照法律规定,根据自愿原则进行调解。当事人对调解达成的协议应当履行;不愿调解、调解不成或者反悔的,可以向人民法院起诉。

人民调解委员会调解民间纠纷,如有违背法律的,人民法院应当予以纠正。

Article 16 The People’s Conciliation Committees are the organizations for mass to mediate civil disputes derived from private citizens under the guidance of basic people’s governments and the basic people’s courts.

The People’s Conciliation Committees shall conduct all mediations according to legal provisions and the principle of voluntariness. All concerned parties shall enforce mediation agreement. Where any concerned parties refuse mediation, fail to reach a mediation agreement, or retract a mediation agreement, they may initiate legal proceedings in a people’s court.

If a People’s Conciliation Committee violates the law when mediating civil disputes, the people’s court shall correct it.

第十七条 【变通规定】民族自治地方的人民代表大会根据宪法和本法的原则,结合当地民族的具体情况,可以制定变通或者补充的规定。自治区的规定,报全国人民代表大会常务委员会批准。自治州、自治县的规定,报省或者自治区的人民代表大会常务委员会批准,并报全国人民代表大会常务委员会备案。

Article 17 The people’s congresses of the national autonomous areas may formulate some accommodating or supplementary provisions according to the principles of the Constitution and this Law and based on the specific circumstances of their localities. Such provisions made by an autonomous region shall be submitted to the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress for approval. The provisions made by an autonomous prefecture or autonomous county shall be submitted to the standing committee of the people’s congress of the relevant autonomous region or province for approval and to the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress for the record.

第二章 管 辖

Chapter 2 Jurisdiction

第一节 级别管辖

Section 1 Jurisdiction by Levels of Courts

第十八条 【基层法院管辖】基层人民法院管辖第一审民事案件,但本法另有规定的除外。

Article 18 A basic people’s court shall have jurisdiction as the court of first instance over civil cases, unless otherwise stipulated in this Law.

第十九条 【中级法院管辖】中级人民法院管辖下列第一审民事案件:

(一)重大涉外案件;

(二)在本辖区有重大影响的案件;

(三)最高人民法院确定由中级人民法院管辖的案件。

Article 19 An intermediate people’s court shall have jurisdiction as courts of first instance over the following civil cases:

(1)Major cases involving foreign elements;

(2)Cases that have major impacts in the area of its jurisdiction; and

(3)Cases under the jurisdiction of the intermediate people’s courts as determined by the Supreme People’s Court.

第二十条 【高级法院管辖】高级人民法院管辖在本辖区有重大影响的第一审民事案件。

Article 20 A higher people’s courts shall have jurisdiction as the court of first instance over civil cases that have major impacts on the areas of its jurisdiction.

第二十一条 【最高法院管辖】最高人民法院管辖下列第一审民事案件:

(一)在全国有重大影响的案件;

(二)认为应当由本院审理的案件。

Article 21The Supreme People’s Court shall have jurisdiction as the court of first instance over the following civil cases:

(1)Cases that have major impacts on the whole country; and

(2)Cases that the Supreme People’s Court deems should be adjudicated by itself.

第二节 地域管辖

Section 2 Territorial Jurisdiction

第二十二条 【一般地域管辖】对公民提起的民事诉讼,由被告住所地人民法院管辖;被告住所地与经常居住地不一致的,由经常居住地人民法院管辖。

对法人或者其他组织提起的民事诉讼,由被告住所地人民法院管辖。

同一诉讼的几个被告住所地、经常居住地在两个以上人民法院辖区的,各该人民法院都有管辖权。

Article 22 A civil lawsuit brought against a citizen shall be under the jurisdiction of the people’s court located in the place where the defendant has his domicile; if the defendant’s domicile is different from his habitual residence, the lawsuit shall be under the jurisdiction of the people’s court located in the place of his habitual residence.

A civil lawsuit brought against a legal person or an organization shall be under the jurisdiction of the people’s court located in the place where the defendant has its domicile.

Where the domiciles or habitual residences of several defendants in the same lawsuit are in the areas under the jurisdiction of two or more people’s courts, all of those people’s courts shall have jurisdiction over the lawsuit.

第二十三条 【特别规定】下列民事诉讼,由原告住所地人民法院管辖;原告住所地与经常居住地不一致的,由原告经常居住地人民法院管辖:

(一)对不在中华人民共和国领域内居住的人提起的有关身份关系的诉讼;

(二)对下落不明或者宣告失踪的人提起的有关身份关系的诉讼;

(三)对被劳动教养的人提起的诉讼;

(四)对被监禁的人提起的诉讼。

Article 23 The civil litigations described below shall be under the jurisdiction of the people’s court located in the place where the plaintiff has his domicile; if the plaintiff’s domicile is different from his habitual residence, the lawsuit shall be under the jurisdiction of the people’ court located in the place of the plaintiff’s habitual residence. The relevant civil litigations are:

(1)Litigations concerning the status of persons who do not reside within the territory of the People’s Republic of China;

(2)Litigations concerning the status of persons whose whereabouts are unknown or whom have been declared missing;

(3)Litigations brought against the persons who are undergoing reeducation through labor; and

(4)Litigations brought against persons who are in imprisonment.

第二十四条 【合同纠纷管辖】因合同纠纷提起的诉讼,由被告住所地或者合同履行地人民法院管辖。

Article 24 A lawsuit brought about a contract dispute shall be under the jurisdiction of the people’s court located in the place where the defendant has his domicile or where the contract is performed.

第二十五条 【协议管辖】合同的双方当事人可以在书面合同中协议选择被告住所地、合同履行地、合同签订地、原告住所地、标的物所在地人民法院管辖,但不得违反本法对级别管辖和专属管辖的规定。

Article 25 The parties to a contract may, through the written contract, choose a people’s court, which located in the place where the defendant would have his domicile, the contract would be performed, the contract would be signed, the plaintiff would have his domicile, or the subject of the contract would be located, to have jurisdiction over the case, as long as this jurisdiction choice does not violate the provisions of this Law regarding the Jurisdiction by Level and the Exclusive Jurisdiction.

第二十六条 【保险纠纷管辖】因保险合同纠纷提起的诉讼,由被告住所地或者保险标的物所在地人民法院管辖。

Article 26 A lawsuit brought for insurance contract dispute shall be under the jurisdiction of the people’s court located in the place where the defendant has his domicile or where the insured subject matter is located.

第二十七条 【票据纠纷管辖】因票据纠纷提起的诉讼,由票据支付地或者被告住所地人民法院管辖。

Article 27 A lawsuit brought for a negotiable instrument dispute shall be under the jurisdiction of the people’s court located in the place where the negotiable instrument is to be paid or where the defendant has his domicile.

第二十八条 【运输纠纷管辖】因铁路、公路、水上、航空运输和联合运输合同纠纷提起的诉讼,由运输始发地、目的地或者被告住所地人民法院管辖。

Article 28 A lawsuit brought for a dispute over transportation contract via railway, highway, water, air, or combined transportation shall be under the jurisdiction of the people’s court located in the place of the departure or the destination, or where the defendant has his domicile.

第二十九条 【侵权行为管辖】因侵权行为提起的诉讼,由侵权行为地或者被告住所地人民法院管辖。

Article 29 A lawsuit brought for a tortious act shall be under the jurisdiction of the people’s court located in the place where the infringing act took place or where the defendant has his domicile.

第三十条 【交通事故管辖】因铁路、公路、水上和航空事故请求损害赔偿提起的诉讼,由事故发生地或者车辆、船舶最先到达地、航空器最先降落地或者被告住所地人民法院管辖。

Article 30 A lawsuit to claim damages caused by a railway, highway, water, or aviation transportation accident shall be under the jurisdiction of the people’s court located in the place where the accident took place, where the vehicle or ship first arrived after the accident, where the aircraft first landed after the accident, or where the defendant has his domicile.

第三十一条 【海损事故管辖】因船舶碰撞或者其他海事损害事故请求损害赔偿提起的诉讼,由碰撞发生地、碰撞船舶最先到达地、加害船舶被扣留地或者被告住所地人民法院管辖。

Article 31 A lawsuit brought for damages caused by a ship collision or any other maritime accident shall be under the jurisdiction of the people’s court located in the place where the collision took place or where the collision ship first docked after the accident or where the ship at fault was detained, or where the defendant has his domicile.

第三十二条 【海难救助管辖】因海难救助费用提起的诉讼,由救助地或者被救助船舶最先到达地人民法院管辖。

Article 32 A lawsuit brought for a maritime salvage shall be under the jurisdiction of the people’s court located in the place where the salvage took place or where the salvaged vessel first docked after the disaster.

第三十三条 【共同海损管辖】因共同海损提起的诉讼,由船舶最先到达地、共同海损理算地或者航程终止地的人民法院管辖。

Article 33 A lawsuit brought for a general average shall be under the jurisdiction of the people’s court located in the place where the ship first docked after the general average adjustment took place or the adjustment thereof was conducted or where the voyage ended.

第三十四条 【专属管辖】下列案件,由本条规定的人民法院专属管辖:

(一)因不动产纠纷提起的诉讼,由不动产所在地人民法院管辖;

(二)因港口作业中发生纠纷提起的诉讼,由港口所在地人民法院管辖;

(三)因继承遗产纠纷提起的诉讼,由被继承人死亡时住所地或者主要遗产所在地人民法院管辖。

Article 34 The following cases shall be under the exclusive jurisdiction of the people’s courts herein specified:

(1)A lawsuit brought for real estate shall be under the jurisdiction of the people’s court located in the place where the real estate is located;

(2)A lawsuit concerning harbor operations shall be under the jurisdiction of the people’s court located in the place where the harbor is located; and

(3)A lawsuit concerning an inheritance shall be under the jurisdiction of the people’s court located in the place where the decedent had his domicile upon his death, or where the principal portion of his estate is located.

第三十五条 【选择管辖】两个以上人民法院都有管辖权的诉讼,原告可以向其中一个人民法院起诉;原告向两个以上有管辖权的人民法院起诉的,由最先立案的人民法院管辖。

Article 35 When two or more people’s courts have jurisdiction over a lawsuit, the plaintiff may bring his lawsuit in one of these people’s courts; if the plaintiff brings the lawsuit in two or more people’s courts that have jurisdiction over the lawsuit, it shall be handled by the people’s court that accepts the case first.

第三节 移送管辖和指定管辖

Section 3 Jurisdiction by Transfer and Jurisdiction by Designation

第三十六条 【移送管辖】人民法院发现受理的案件不属于本院管辖的,应当移送有管辖权的人民法院,受移送的人民法院应当受理。受移送的人民法院认为受移送的案件依照规定不属于本院管辖的,应当报请上级人民法院指定管辖,不得再自行移送。

Article 36 If a people’s court discovers that a case it has accepted is not under its jurisdiction, it shall transfer the case to the people’s court that does have jurisdiction over the case. The people’s court to which a case has been transferred shall accept the case, and if it considers that, according to relevant regulations, the transferred case is not under its jurisdiction, it shall report to a superior people’s court for the designation of jurisdiction and shall not transfer the case to another people’s court without authorization.

第三十七条 【指定管辖】有管辖权的人民法院由于特殊原因,不能行使管辖权的,由上级人民法院指定管辖。

人民法院之间因管辖权发生争议,由争议双方协商解决;协商解决不了的,报请它们的共同上级人民法院指定管辖。

Article 37 If a people’s court which has jurisdiction over a case is unable to exercise the jurisdiction for a special reason, the superior people’s court shall designate another court to exercise the jurisdiction.

If there is a dispute over a jurisdiction among people’s courts, it shall be resolved by the disputing parties through consultation; if the dispute cannot be resolved through consultation, the disputing courts shall ask their superior people’s court to designate the jurisdiction.

第三十八条 【管辖异议】人民法院受理案件后,当事人对管辖权有异议的,应当在提交答辩状期间提出。人民法院对当事人提出的异议,应当审查。异议成立的,裁定将案件移送有管辖权的人民法院;异议不成立的,裁定驳回。

Article 38 If a party rejects the jurisdiction of his case after the case was accepted by a people’s court, the party shall raise the rejection during the period for submitting briefs. The people’s court shall examine such objection. If the objection is tenable, the people’s court shall rule that the case be transferred to the people’s court that does have jurisdiction over the case; if the rejection is untenable, the people’s court shall overrule the objection.

第三十九条 【管辖转移】上级人民法院有权审理下级人民法院管辖的第一审民事案件,也可以把本院管辖的第一审民事案件交下级人民法院审理。

下级人民法院对它所管辖的第一审民事案件,认为需要由上级人民法院审理的,可以报请上级人民法院审理。

Article 39 People’s courts at higher levels shall have the authority to try civil cases over which people’s courts at lower levels have jurisdiction as courts of first instance; they may also transfer civil cases over which they themselves have jurisdiction as courts of first instance to people’s courts at lower levels for adjudication.

If a people’s court at a lower level deems it necessary for a civil case of first instance under its jurisdiction to be tried by a people’s court at a higher level, it may request such a people’s court to adjudicate the case.

第三章 审判组织

Chapter 3 Trial Organization

第四十条 【一审审判组织】人民法院审理第一审民事案件,由审判员、陪审员共同组成合议庭或者由审判员组成合议庭。合议庭的成员人数,必须是单数。

适用简易程序审理的民事案件,由审判员一人独任审理。

陪审员在执行陪审职务时,与审判员有同等的权利义务。

Article 40 Civil cases of first instance shall be tried in a people’s court by a collegial bench consisting of both judges and assessors or of judges alone. The numbers of members of a collegial bench shall be odd.

Civil cases to which summary procedure is applied shall be tried by a single judge alone.

When carrying out their duties as assessors, the assessors shall have equal rights and obligations as the judges.

第四十一条 【二、重、再审审判组织】人民法院审理第二审民事案件,由审判员组成合议庭。合议庭的成员人数,必须是单数。

发回重审的案件,原审人民法院应当按照第一审程序另行组成合议庭。

审理再审案件,原来是第一审的,按照第一审程序另行组成合议庭;原来是第二审的或者是上级人民法院提审的,按照第二审程序另行组成合议庭。

Article 41 Civil cases of second instance shall be tried in a people’s court by a collegial bench of judges. The numbers of members of a collegial bench shall be odd.

For the retrial of a remanded case, the people’s court of first instance shall form a new collegial bench according to the procedure of first instance.

If a case for retrial was originally tried at first instance, a new collegial bench shall be formed according to the procedure of first instance; if the case was originally tried at second instance or was removed to a people’s court at a higher level for trial, a new collegial bench shall be formed according to the procedure of second instance.

第四十二条 【审判长】合议庭的审判长由院长或者庭长指定审判员一人担任;院长或者庭长参加审判的,由院长或者庭长担任。

Article 42 The president of the court or the chief judge of a division shall designate a judge to serve as the presiding judge of the collegial bench; if the president or the chief judge participates in trial, he himself shall serve as the presiding judge.

第四十三条 【评议原则】合议庭评议案件,实行少数服从多数的原则。评议应当制作笔录,由合议庭成员签名。评议中的不同意见,必须如实记入笔录。

Article 43 When deliberating a case, a collegial bench shall observe the principle of minority obeying majority. The deliberations shall be recorded in writing, and the transcript shall be signed by the members of the collegial bench. The dissenting opinions in the deliberations shall be truthfully recorded in the transcript.

第四十四条 【审判人员义务】审判人员应当依法秉公办案。

审判人员不得接受当事人及其诉讼代理人请客送礼。

审判人员有贪污受贿,徇私舞弊,枉法裁判行为的,应当追究法律责任;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。

Article 44 The adjudicating personnel shall handle the case impartially and according to law.

The adjudicating personnel shall not accept a treat or gift from the parties or their agents.

Any adjudicating personnel who commits embezzlement, accepts bribes, practices favoritism for himself or relatives, twists the law in rendering judgment shall be investigated for legal responsibility; if a crime is committed, the offender shall be investigated for criminal responsibility according to law.

第四章 回 避

Chapter 4 Recusal of Adjudicating Personnel

第四十五条 【适用情形】审判人员有下列情形之一的,必须回避,当事人有权用口头或者书面方式申请他们回避:

(一)是本案当事人或者当事人、诉讼代理人的近亲属;

(二)与本案有利害关系;

(三)与本案当事人有其他关系,可能影响对案件公正审理的。

前款规定,适用于书记员、翻译人员、鉴定人、勘验人。

Article 45 Any member of the adjudicating personnel in any of the following circumstances shall be disqualified, and the litigation parties shall also have the right to request, orally or in writing, such an adjudicator to be withdrawn from this case. The relevant circumstances are:

(1)He is a party or a near relative of a party or a near relative of a litigation representative to the case;

(2)He has a personal interest in the case; or

(3)He has some other relationship with a party to the case, which could influence the impartial adjudication.

The above provisions shall also apply to clerks, interpreters, expert witnesses, and examiners.

第四十六条 【回避申请】当事人提出回避申请,应当说明理由,在案件开始审理时提出;回避事由在案件开始审理后知道的,也可以在法庭辩论终结前提出。

被申请回避的人员在人民法院作出是否回避的决定前,应当暂停参与本案的工作,但案件需要采取紧急措施的除外。

Article 46 When a party makes a request to disqualify an adjudicator, he shall make an explanation and submit the request at the beginning of the proceedings; a request for recusal may also be submitted before the end of court debate if the recusal reason is uncovered after the proceeding begins.

If a recusal decision is waiting for a people’s court to decide, the personnel who have been requested to be disqualified shall temporarily be suspended from participating in the proceedings, but with the exception of cases that require emergency measures.

第四十七条 【回避决定】院长担任审判长时的回避,由审判委员会决定;审判人员的回避,由院长决定;其他人员的回避,由审判长决定。

Article 47 The recusal of a court president who serves as the presiding judge shall be decided by the adjudicating committee; the recusal of adjudicators shall be decided by the court president; the recusal of other personnel shall be decided by the presiding judge.

第四十八条 【回避时限及后果】人民法院对当事人提出的回避申请,应当在申请提出的三日内,以口头或者书面形式作出决定。申请人对决定不服的,可以在接到决定时申请复议一次。复议期间,被申请回避的人员,不停止参与本案的工作。人民法院对复议申请,应当在三日内作出复议决定,并通知复议申请人。

Article 48 The decision of a people’s court on a request for recusal shall be made orally or in writing within three days after the request was made. If a party is not satisfied with a recusal decision, it may apply for reconsideration once. During the period of reconsideration, the personnel who have been requested to be disqualified shall not be suspended from participating in the proceedings. The decision of a people’s court on an application for reconsideration shall be made within three days after receiving the application and the person who has made the application for reconsideration shall be notified of the decision.

第五章 诉讼参加人

Chapter 5 Litigation Participants

第一节 当事人

Section 1 Parties

第四十九条 【当事人范围】公民、法人和其他组织可以作为民事诉讼的当事人。

法人由其法定代表人进行诉讼。其他组织由其主要负责人进行诉讼。

Article 49 Any citizen, legal person or any other organization may become a party to a civil lawsuit.

Legal persons shall be represented by their legal representatives in litigation. Other organizations shall be represented by their principal leading personnel in litigation.

第五十条 【诉讼权利义务】当事人有权委托代理人,提出回避申请,收集、提供证据,进行辩论,请求调解,提起上诉,申请执行。

当事人可以查阅本案有关材料,并可以复制本案有关材料和法律文书。查阅、复制本案有关材料的范围和办法由最高人民法院规定。

当事人必须依法行使诉讼权利,遵守诉讼秩序,履行发生法律效力的判决书、裁定书和调解书。

Article 50 The parties shall have the right to appoint representatives, request recusals of adjudicating personnel, collect and provide evidence, engage in debate, request mediation, file an appeal, and apply for an enforcement of judgments.

The parties may consult the materials relating to the court proceedings of the case and copy the materials and other legal documents pertaining to the case. However, materials involving state secrets, trade secrets, or the private affairs of individuals shall be exceptions.

The parties must exercise their litigation rights according to the law, observe litigation procedures and carry out legally effective written judgments or orders and mediation statements.

第五十一条 【自行和解】双方当事人可以自行和解。

Article 51 The two parties may reach a settlement agreement on their own.

第五十二条 【诉请变更】原告可以放弃或者变更诉讼请求。被告可以承认或者反驳诉讼请求,有权提起反诉。

Article 52 The plaintiff may relinquish or modify his claim. The defendant may confirm or repudiate the claim and shall have the right to file a counterclaim.

第五十三条 【共同诉讼】当事人一方或者双方为二人以上,其诉讼标的是共同的,或者诉讼标的是同一种类、人民法院认为可以合并审理并经当事人同意的,为共同诉讼。

共同诉讼的一方当事人对诉讼标的有共同权利义务的,其中一人的诉讼行为经其他共同诉讼人承认,对其他共同诉讼人发生效力;对诉讼标的没有共同权利义务的,其中一人的诉讼行为对其他共同诉讼人不发生效力。

Article 53 When one party or both parties consist of two or more persons and the subject matter of the action is the same or under the same category, the people’s court may adjudicate them together upon the consent of all the parties. Such adjudication is called joint litigation.

If a party of two or more persons of a joint litigation who have the common rights and obligations with respect to the subject matter of action and the act of any of them is recognized by the others of the party, such an act shall bind the rest of the party; if a party of two or more persons have no common rights and obligations with respect to the subject matter of action, any acts taken by any one of them shall not bind the rest of the party.

第五十四条 【代表人诉讼】当事人一方人数众多的共同诉讼,可以由当事人推选代表人进行诉讼。代表人的诉讼行为对其所代表的当事人发生效力,但代表人变更、放弃诉讼请求或者承认对方当事人的诉讼请求,进行和解,必须经被代表的当事人同意。

Article 54 A joint litigation in which one party has numerous litigants may be brought by the representatives elected by the litigants of the party. The act of litigation taken by these representatives shall bind all litigants of the party whom they represent. However, any substitution of representatives, relinquishing claims, acceptance of claims of the opposing party, or negotiating settlement shall be approved by the litigants of the party.

第五十五条 【集团诉讼】诉讼标的是同一种类、当事人一方人数众多在起诉时人数尚未确定的,人民法院可以发出公告,说明案件情况和诉讼请求,通知权利人在一定期间向人民法院登记。

向人民法院登记的权利人可以推选代表人进行诉讼;推选不出代表人的,人民法院可以与参加登记的权利人商定代表人。

代表人的诉讼行为对其所代表的当事人发生效力,但代表人变更、放弃诉讼请求或者承认对方当事人的诉讼请求,进行和解,必须经被代表的当事人同意。

人民法院作出的判决、裁定,对参加登记的全体权利人发生效力。未参加登记的权利人在诉讼时效期间提起诉讼的,适用该判决、裁定。

Article 55 Where the subject matters of an action is under the same category and one of the parties has numerous litigants but the exact number of the litigants is uncertain when the lawsuit is filed, the people’s court may issue a public notice to explain the nature of the case and the claims of the litigation and informing those interested persons who are entitled to the claim to register their rights with the people’s court within a fixed period of time.

Those who have registered their rights with the people’s court may elect representatives from among themselves to proceed with the litigation; if the election fails its purpose, such representatives may be determined by the people’s court through consultation with those who have registered their rights with the court.

The acts of litigation taken by these representatives shall bind all litigants of the party whom they represent. However, any substitution of representatives, relinquishing claims, acceptance of claims of the opposing party, or negotiating settlement shall be approved by the litigants of the party.

The judgments or written orders rendered by the people’s court shall bind all those interested persons who have registered their rights with the court. Such judgments or written orders shall apply to those who have not registered their rights but have instituted legal proceedings during the time of the statute of limitation.

第五十六条 【诉讼第三人】对当事人双方的诉讼标的,第三人认为有独立请求权的,有权提起诉讼。

对当事人双方的诉讼标的,第三人虽然没有独立请求权,但案件处理结果同他有法律上的利害关系的,可以申请参加诉讼,或者由人民法院通知他参加诉讼。人民法院判决承担民事责任的第三人,有当事人的诉讼权利义务。

Article 56 If a third party considers that he has the independent right to claim the subject matter of the action of both parties, he shall have the right to bring an action.

If a third party does not have the independent right to claim the subject matter of the action of both parties but the outcome of the case will affect his legal interest, it may file a request to join the litigation or the people’s court may notify him to join the litigation. If a people’s court holds a third party to bear a civil liability, such a third party shall have the litigation rights as a party to the litigation.

第二节 诉讼代理人

Section 2 Litigation Representatives

第五十七条 【法定代理人】无诉讼行为能力人由他的监护人作为法定代理人代为诉讼。法定代理人之间互相推诿代理责任的,由人民法院指定其中一人代为诉讼。

Article 57 For litigation-incompetent persons, their guardians shall be their legal representative in their litigations. If all legal representatives try to avoid their duties of representation, the people’s court may appoint one of them as the litigation represent.

第五十八条 【委托代理人】当事人、法定代理人可以委托一至二人作为诉讼代理人。

律师、当事人的近亲属、有关的社会团体或者所在单位推荐的人、经人民法院许可的其他公民,都可以被委托为诉讼代理人。

Article 58 Each party or legal representative may appoint one or two persons to act as his litigation representatives.

Lawyers, a party’s near relatives, persons recommended by relevant public organizations or the units to which a party belongs, or any other citizens approved by a people’s court may be entrusted as the party’s litigation representatives.

第五十九条 【授权委托书】委托他人代为诉讼,必须向人民法院提交由委托人签名或者盖章的授权委托书。

授权委托书必须记明委托事项和权限。诉讼代理人代为承认、放弃、变更诉讼请求,进行和解,提起反诉或者上诉,必须有委托人的特别授权。

侨居在国外的中华人民共和国公民从国外寄交或者托交的授权委托书,必须经中华人民共和国驻该国的使领馆证明;没有使领馆的,由与中华人民共和国有外交关系的第三国驻该国的使领馆证明,再转由中华人民共和国驻该第三国使领馆证明,或者由当地的爱国华侨团体证明。

Article 59 When a party entrusts a person to be his litigation representative, he shall submit a power of attorney bearing his signature or seal to the people’s court.

The power of attorney must specify the matters and authority scopes entrusted. A litigation representative must possess special authorization from his principal to be able to accept, relinquish, or modify the claim, to reach a settlement, or bring a counterclaim or an appeal.

When a citizen of the People’s Republic of China, who is residing abroad, mails or entrusts someone to deliver a power of attorney to China, he shall have the power of attorney certified by the Chinese embassy or consulate to that country. If there is no Chinese embassy or consulate in that country, he shall have the power of attorney certified by an embassy or a consulate of a third country, which has diplomatic relations with the People’s Republic of China and is stationed in the country, and then be transferred to the embassy or consulate of the People’s Republic of China stationed in that third state for verification; he may have the power of attorney certified by a local patriotic overseas Chinese organization.

第六十条 【代理权变更、解除】诉讼代理人的权限如果变更或者解除,当事人应当书面告知人民法院,并由人民法院通知对方当事人。

Article 60 A party who changes or revokes the authority of his litigation representative shall inform the people’s court in writing and the court shall notify the other party of the change or revocation.

第六十一条 【代理人权利】代理诉讼的律师和其他诉讼代理人有权调查收集证据,可以查阅本案有关材料。查阅本案有关材料的范围和办法由最高人民法院规定。

Article 61 Lawyers who serve as litigation representatives or other litigation representatives shall have the right to investigate and collect evidence, and may consult relevant materials to the case. The scopes and measures of consulting relevant materials to a case shall be regulated by the Supreme People’s Court.

第六十二条 【离婚诉讼代理】离婚案件有诉讼代理人的,本人除不能表达意志的以外,仍应出庭;确因特殊情况无法出庭的,必须向人民法院提交书面意见。

Article 62 For a divorce case in which a party has appointed a litigation representative, that party shall appear in court in person unless he is incapable of expressing his own opinion. A party who is truly unable to appear in court due to a special reason shall submit his opinion in writing to the people’s court.

第六章 证 据

Chapter 6 Evidence

第六十三条 【证据种类】证据有下列几种:

(一)书证;

(二)物证;

(三)视听资料;

(四)证人证言;

(五)当事人的陈述;

(六)鉴定结论;

(七)勘验笔录。

以上证据必须查证属实,才能作为认定事实的根据。

Article 63 Evidence shall be classified as follows:

(1)documentary evidence;

(2)physical evidence;

(3)audio and visual material;

(4)testimony of witnesses;

(5)statements of involving parties;

(6)conclusions of expert witnesses; and

(7)transcripts of inspection and examination.

Any of the above-mentioned evidence must be verified before it can be taken as a basis for finding a fact.

第六十四条 【举证责任】当事人对自己提出的主张,有责任提供证据。

当事人及其诉讼代理人因客观原因不能自行收集的证据,或者人民法院认为审理案件需要的证据,人民法院应当调查收集。

人民法院应当按照法定程序,全面地、客观地审查核实证据。

Article 64 A party shall have the responsibility to provide evidence in support of its own propositions.

For the evidence that cannot be obtained by any parties or their litigation representatives because of some realistic reasons or for the evidence that the people’s court considers necessary for adjudicating the case, the people’s court shall investigate and collect such evidence.

The people’s court shall, according to the procedure prescribed by law, collect and examine evidence comprehensively and objectively.

第六十五条 【查证责任】人民法院有权向有关单位和个人调查取证,有关单位和个人不得拒绝。

人民法院对有关单位和个人提出的证明文书,应当辨别真伪,审查确定其效力。

Article 65 The people’s court shall have the authority to obtain evidence from any relevant units or individuals, and such units or individuals may not refuse to provide evidence.

The people’s court shall verify and determine the validity of documentary evidence provided by relevant units or individuals.

第六十六条 【证据审查】证据应当在法庭上出示,并由当事人互相质证。对涉及国家秘密、商业秘密和个人隐私的证据应当保密,需要在法庭出示的,不得在公开开庭时出示。

Article 66 Evidence shall be presented in the court and cross-examined by parties, however, evidence that involves state secrets, trade secrets, or individual privacy shall not be presented in an open court session.

第六十七条 【公证证据】经过法定程序公证证明的法律行为、法律事实和文书,人民法院应当作为认定事实的根据。但有相反证据足以推翻公证证明的除外。

Article 67 The people’s court shall admit the legal acts, legal facts and documents that are notarized according to legal procedures as a basis for finding facts, except when there is contrary evidence that is sufficient to invalidate the notarization.

第六十八条 【书证物证】书证应当提交原件。物证应当提交原物。提交原件或者原物确有困难的,可以提交复制品、照片、副本、节录本。

提交外文书证,必须附有中文译本。

Article 68 Any document submitted as evidence shall be the original one. Physical evidence shall also be original. If it is truly difficult to present the original document or physical evidence, then duplications, photographs, copies, or extracts of the original evidence may be admitted.

If a document in a foreign language is submitted as evidence, a Chinese translation shall be appended.

第六十九条 【视听资料】人民法院对视听资料,应当辨别真伪,并结合本案的其他证据,审查确定能否作为认定事实的根据。

Article 69 The people’s court shall authenticate audio and visual materials and decide whether they can be admitted as a basis for finding the facts after examining them and comparing them with other evidence of the same case.

第七十条 【证人条件、义务】凡是知道案件情况的单位和个人,都有义务出庭作证。有关单位的负责人应当支持证人作证。证人确有困难不能出庭的,经人民法院许可,可以提交书面证言。

不能正确表达意志的人,不能作证。

Article 70 All units and individuals who have information about a case shall have the obligation to testify in court. The responsible persons of relevant units shall encourage the witnesses to give testimony. When it is truly too difficult for a witness to appear in court, he may, with the approval of the people’s court, submit a written testimony.

Any person who is incapable of expressing his opinion properly shall not testify.

第七十一条 【当事人陈述】人民法院对当事人的陈述,应当结合本案的其他证据,审查确定能否作为认定事实的根据。

当事人拒绝陈述的,不影响人民法院根据证据认定案件事实。

Article 71 The people’s court shall examine the statements of the parties in connection with other evidence of the case to decide whether such statements can be taken as a basis for finding the facts.

The refusal of a party to make a statement shall not prevent the people’s court from finding the facts of a case based on other evidence.

第七十二条 【鉴定结论】人民法院对专门性问题认为需要鉴定的,应当交由法定鉴定部门鉴定;没有法定鉴定部门的,由人民法院指定的鉴定部门鉴定。

鉴定部门及其指定的鉴定人有权了解进行鉴定所需要的案件材料,必要时可以询问当事人、证人。

鉴定部门和鉴定人应当提出书面鉴定结论,在鉴定书上签名或者盖章。鉴定人鉴定的,应当由鉴定人所在单位加盖印章,证明鉴定人身份。

Article 72 When a people’s court deems it necessary to make an evaluation of a specialized issue, it shall refer the issue to an authentication department authorized by law for the evaluation. In the absence of such department, the people’s court shall appoint an authentication department to make the evaluation.

The authentication department and the expert witness designated by the department shall have the right to consult the case materials necessary for the evaluation and direct inquiries to the parties and witnesses when circumstances require.

An authentication department and expert witness shall present its or his conclusion of the evaluation in writing and sign it or put his seal on it. With respect to an evaluation made by an expert witness, the unit to which the expert witness belongs shall certify his status by affixing its seal to the expert conclusion.

第七十三条 【勘验程序】勘验物证或者现场,勘验人必须出示人民法院的证件,并邀请当地基层组织或者当事人所在单位派人参加。当事人或者当事人的成年家属应当到场,拒不到场的,不影响勘验的进行。

有关单位和个人根据人民法院的通知,有义务保护现场,协助勘验工作。

勘验人应当将勘验情况和结果制作笔录,由勘验人、当事人和被邀参加人签名或者盖章。

Article 73 When inspecting or examining physical evidence on site, the inspector must show his credentials issued by a people’s court. He shall invite the local basic organization or the relevant unit to send personnel to participate in the inspection. The parties concerned or the adult members of their families shall be present; however, their refusal to appear on the scene shall not prevent the inspection from proceeding.

Upon notification by the people’s court, the relevant units and individuals shall have the obligation to preserve the site and provide assistance for the inspection.

The inspector and examiner shall prepare a written record for the circumstances and results of the inspection or examination. The inspector, examiner, the party concerned and the invited participants shall affix their signatures or seals to the record.

第七十四条 【证据保全】在证据可能灭失或者以后难以取得的情况下,诉讼参加人可以向人民法院申请保全证据,人民法院也可以主动采取保全措施。

Article 74 Under circumstances where there is a likely-hood that evidence may be destroyed, lost or too difficult to obtain later on, any litigation participants may apply to the people’s court for the preservation of the evidence. The people’s court may also take initiative to preserve such evidence.

第七章 期间、送达

Chapter 7 Time Periods and Service

第一节 期 间

Section 1 Time Periods

第七十五条 【期间种类和计算】期间包括法定期间和人民法院指定的期间。

期间以时、日、月、年计算。期间开始的时和日,不计算在期间内。

期间届满的最后一日是节假日的,以节假日后的第一日为期间届满的日期。

期间不包括在途时间,诉讼文书在期满前交邮的,不算过期。

Article 75 Time periods shall include those prescribed by law and those designated by a people’s court.

Time periods shall be computed by hour, day, month, and year. The hour and day from which a time period begins shall not be computed as within that time period.

If the expiration date of a time period falls on a holiday, the day immediately following the holiday shall be regarded as the expiration date.

A statutory time period shall not include the time spent in transmittal of documents. A litigation document that is mailed before a deadline shall not be regarded as overdue.

第七十六条 【期间耽误和顺延】当事人因不可抗拒的事由或者其他正当理由耽误期限的,在障碍消除后的十日内,可以申请顺延期限,是否准许,由人民法院决定。

Article 76 If a party fails to meet a deadline due to reasons beyond his control or other justifiable reasons, he may petition for an extension of the time limit within 10 days after the obstacle is removed. The requested extension shall be subject to approval by a people’s court.

第二节 送 达

Section 2 Service

第七十七条 【送达回证】送达诉讼文书必须有送达回证,由受送达人在送达回证上记明收到日期,签名或者盖章。

受送达人在送达回证上的签收日期为送达日期。

Article 77 A receipt shall be required for every litigation document that is served and it shall bear the signature or seal of the recipient of the service and the date of receipt.

The date of receipt as signed by the recipient of the service shall be regarded as the date the document is served.

第七十八条 【直接送达】送达诉讼文书,应当直接送交受送达人。受送达人是公民的,本人不在交他的同住成年家属签收;受送达人是法人或者其他组织的,应当由法人的法定代表人、其他组织的主要负责人或者该法人、组织负责收件的人签收;受送达人有诉讼代理人的,可以送交其代理人签收;受送达人已向人民法院指定代收人的,送交代收人签收。

受送达人的同住成年家属,法人或者其他组织的负责收件的人,诉讼代理人或者代收人在送达回证上签收的日期为送达日期。

Article 78 Litigation documents shall be served directly on the recipient of the service. If the recipient of the service is a citizen, the documents may, in the case of his absence, be served on an adult member of the recipient’s family who lives with him. If the recipient of the service is a legal person or any other organization, the document shall be served on the legal representatives of the legal person, the principal leading personnel of any other organization, the personnel of the legal person or any other organization in charge of receiving such documents; If the recipient of the service has a litigation representative, the documents may be served on the litigation representative. If the recipient of the service has designated an agent to receive his litigation documents and has informed the people’s court of it, the documents may be served on the agent.

The date of receipt as signed by the adult family member living with the recipient of service, or persons in charge of receiving documents of the legal persons or other organizations, or litigation representative, or agents designated to receive his documents shall be regarded as the date the document is served.

第七十九条 【留置送达】受送达人或者他的同住成年家属拒绝接收诉讼文书的,送达人应当邀请有关基层组织或者所在单位的代表到场,说明情况,在送达回证上记明拒收事由和日期,由送达人、见证人签名或者盖章,把诉讼文书留在受送达人的住所,即视为送达。

Article 79 If the recipient of a service or any of his adult family members living with him refuses to accept a legal document, the person serving the document shall ask the representatives of the relevant basic organization or unit to which the recipient of the service belongs to appear on the scene, explain the situation to them, and record the reasons of the refusal and the date on the receipt. After the person serving the document and the witnesses have affixed their signatures or seals on the receipt, the document may be left at the place where the recipient of the service stays and the service shall be considered completed.

第八十条 【委托及邮寄送达】直接送达诉讼文书有困难的,可以委托其他人民法院代为送达,或者邮寄送达。邮寄送达的,以回执上注明的收件日期为送达日期。

Article 80 If direct delivery service of a litigation document proves too difficult, such a service may be entrusted to the other people’s court, or it may be served by postal service. If a document is served by post, the date as stated on the receipt shall be regarded as the date the document is served.

第八十一条 【转交送达之一】受送达人是军人的,通过其所在部队团以上单位的政治机关转交。

Article 81 If the recipient of a service is in the military, the document shall be forwarded to him via the political organ at or above the regimen level in the unit to which the recipient belongs.

第八十二条 【转交送达之二】受送达人是被监禁的,通过其所在监所或者劳动改造单位转交。

受送达人是被劳动教养的,通过其所在劳动教养单位转交。

Article 82 If the recipient of the service is undergoing imprisonment, the document shall be forwarded to him via the prison or the unit of rehabilitation through labor where he is serving his sentence.

If the recipient of the service is undergoing reeducation through labor, the document shall be forwarded to him via the unit supervising his reeducation through labor.

第八十三条 【转交送达期间】代为转交的机关、单位收到诉讼文书后,必须立即交受送达人签收,以在送达回证上的签收日期,为送达日期。

Article 83 Any organization or unit that receives a litigation document to be forwarded must immediately deliver it to the recipient of the service for a receipt. The date as stated on the receipt shall be regarded as the date the document is served.

第八十四条 【公告送达】受送达人下落不明,或者用本节规定的其他方式无法送达的,公告送达。自发出公告之日起,经过六十日,即视为送达。

公告送达,应当在案卷中记明原因和经过。

Article 84 If the whereabouts of a recipient is unknown, or if a document cannot be served by the other methods prescribed in this section, the document shall be served by public announcement. Sixty days after the date of the public announcement, the document shall be deemed to have been served.

The reasons for service by public announcement and the procedures taken shall be recorded in the case files.

第八章 调 解

Chapter 8 Mediation

第八十五条 【调解的原则】人民法院审理民事案件,根据当事人自愿的原则,在事实清楚的基础上,分清是非,进行调解。

Article 85 In handling civil cases, the people’s court may distinguish between right and wrong and mediate disputes according to the principle of parties’ voluntariness and based on clear facts.

第八十六条 【调解组织形式】人民法院进行调解,可以由审判员一人主持,也可以由合议庭主持,并尽可能就地进行。

人民法院进行调解,可以用简便方式通知当事人、证人到庭。

Article 86 When a people’s court conducts mediation, a single judge or a collegial bench may preside in the mediation. Mediations shall be conducted locally whenever possible.

When a people’s court conducts mediation, it may employ simplified methods to notify the parties and witnesses to appear in court.

第八十七条 【协助调解】人民法院进行调解,可以邀请有关单位和个人协助。被邀请的单位和个人,应当协助人民法院进行调解。

Article 87 When a people’s court conducts mediation, it may request assistance from relevant units or individuals. The invited units or individuals shall assist the people’s court in mediation.

第八十八条 【调解协议】调解达成协议,必须双方自愿,不得强迫。调解协议的内容不得违反法律规定。

Article 88 A mediation agreement must be based on voluntariness of both parties, and shall not be reached through compulsion. The content of the mediation agreement may not contravene the law.

第八十九条 【调解书】调解达成协议,人民法院应当制作调解书。调解书应当写明诉讼请求、案件的事实和调解结果。

调解书由审判人员、书记员署名,加盖人民法院印章,送达双方当事人。

调解书经双方当事人签收后,即具有法律效力。

Article 89 When a mediation agreement is reached, the people’s court shall draw up a written mediation agreement. A mediation agreement shall clearly set forth the claims of the action, the facts about the case, and the result of the mediation.

The mediation statement shall be signed by the judge and the court clerk, sealed by the people’s court, and served on both parties.

Once the mediation agreement is signed and exchanged by both parties, it shall become legally binding.

第九十条 【不制作调解书】下列案件调解达成协议,人民法院可以不制作调解书:

(一)调解和好的离婚案件;

(二)调解维持收养关系的案件;

(三)能够即时履行的案件;

(四)其他不需要制作调解书的案件。

对不需要制作调解书的协议,应当记入笔录,由双方当事人、审判人员、书记员签名或者盖章后,即具有法律效力。

Article 90 The people’s court need not draw up a mediation agreement for the following cases when an agreement is reached through mediation:

(1)Divorce cases in which both parties have become reconciled after mediation;

(2)Adoption cases in which adoptive relationship has been retained through mediation;

(3)Cases in which the claims can be immediately satisfied; and

(4)Other cases that do not require mediation statements.

Any agreement that does not require a mediation agreement shall be entered into the transcript and become legally effective after the transcript is signed or sealed by both parties, the judge, and the court clerk.

第九十一条 【调解失败】调解未达成协议或者调解书送达前一方反悔的,人民法院应当及时判决。

Article 91If no agreement is reached through mediation or if one party retracts his reconciliation before the mediation agreement is served, the people’s court shall render a judgment without delay.

第九章 财产保全和先予执行

Chapter 9 Property Preservation and Advance Enforcement

第九十二条 【适用条件和程序】人民法院对于可能因当事人一方的行为或者其他原因,使判决不能执行或者难以执行的案件,可以根据对方当事人的申请,作出财产保全的裁定;当事人没有提出申请的,人民法院在必要时也可以裁定采取财产保全措施。

人民法院采取财产保全措施,可以责令申请人提供担保;申请人不提供担保的,驳回申请。

人民法院接受申请后,对情况紧急的,必须在四十八小时内作出裁定;裁定采取财产保全措施的,应当立即开始执行。

Article 92 If it becomes impossible or difficult to enforce a judgment because of the acts taken by one of the parties or for other reasons, the people’s court may, upon the request of the other party, make an order to preserve the property. In the absence of such requests, the people’s court may, when necessary, also order to adopt property preservation measures.

When a people’s court has decided to adopt property preservation, it may instruct the applicant to provide a surety; if the applicant fails to do so, his application may be rejected.

After receiving a party’s application, if the case is urgent, the people’s court must make an order regarding property preservation within 48 hours; if a people’s court makes an order for property preservation, it shall enforce the preservation immediately.

第九十三条 【诉前财产保全】利害关系人因情况紧急,不立即申请财产保全将会使其合法权益受到难以弥补的损害的,可以在起诉前向人民法院申请采取财产保全措施。申请人应当提供担保,不提供担保的,驳回申请。

人民法院接受申请后,必须在四十八小时内作出裁定;裁定采取财产保全措施的,应当立即开始执行。

申请人在人民法院采取保全措施后十五日内不起诉的,人民法院应当解除财产保全。

Article 93 Any interested party whose lawful rights and interests, due to urgent circumstances, would suffer from un-remediable harms if he fails to petition for property preservation immediately, may, before filing the lawsuit, petition to the people’s court for the adoption of property preservation measures. The petitioner shall provide a surety; if the petitioner fails to do so, his petition may be rejected.

After receiving a party’s petition for property preservation, the people’s court shall make a ruling within 48 hours; if property preservation is granted by a ruling, the preservation thereof shall be enforced immediately.

If the petitioner fails to file a lawsuit within 15 days after the people’s court has adopted the preservation measures, the people’s court shall cancel the property preservation.

第九十四条 【请求范围及措施】财产保全限于请求的范围,或者与本案有关的财物。

财产保全采取查封、扣押、冻结或者法律规定的其他方法。

人民法院冻结财产后,应当立即通知被冻结财产的人。

财产已被查封、冻结的,不得重复查封、冻结。

Article 94 Property preservation shall be limited to the scope of the claim or to the property related to the case.

The measures of property preservation may include seizure, detain, freeze, or other methods as prescribed by law.

When a people’s court freezes a property, it shall notify the person whose property is frozen.

Those properties that have already been seized, detained, or frozen shall not be seized or frozen again.

第九十五条 【保全解除】被申请人提供担保的,人民法院应当解除财产保全。

Article 95 If the defending party whose property is preserved provides a security, the people’s court shall cancel the property preservation.

第九十六条 【保全错误补救】申请有错误的,申请人应当赔偿被申请人因财产保全所遭受的损失。

Article 96 Where a petition is wrongfully made, the petitioner shall compensate the defending party for any loss incurred from the property preservation.

第九十七条 【先予执行范围】人民法院对下列案件,根据当事人的申请,可以裁定先予执行:

(一)追索赡养费、扶养费、抚育费、抚恤金、医疗费用的;

(二)追索劳动报酬的;

(三)因情况紧急需要先予执行的。

Article 97 The people’s court may, at the request of a party, order the measures for the following cases to be enforced in advance:

(1)Cases involving claims of alimonies, supports for children or elders, pension for the disabled or the family of a decedent, or expenses for medical care;

(2)Cases involving claims of wages; and

(3)Cases involving urgent circumstances that require enforcement in advance.

第九十八条 【先予执行条件】人民法院裁定先予执行的,应当符合下列条件:

(一)当事人之间权利义务关系明确,不先予执行将严重影响申请人的生活或者生产经营的;

(二)被申请人有履行能力。

人民法院可以责令申请人提供担保,申请人不提供担保的,驳回申请。申请人败诉的,应当赔偿被申请人因先予执行遭受的财产损失。

Article 98 The people’s court shall make sure the following conditions are met before making a ruling to enforce the property preservation in advance:

(1)The relationship of rights and obligations between the parties is definite, and the refusal of advance enforcement would seriously affect the life or business operation of petitioners; and

(2)The defending party whose property would be preserved is capable of fulfilling the obligations involved in the advance enforcement.

The people’s court may order the petitioners to provide sureties; if a petitioner fails to do so, his petition may be rejected. If the petitioner loses the lawsuit, he shall compensate the defending party whose property was preserved for any loss incurred from the advance enforcement.

第九十九条 【复议】当事人对财产保全或者先予执行的裁定不服的,可以申请复议一次。复议期间不停止裁定的执行。

Article 99 If a party is not satisfied with an order on property preservation or advance enforcement, he may petition for reconsideration that can be granted only once. However, the enforcement of the order shall not be suspended during the time of reconsideration.

第十章 对妨害民事诉讼的强制措施

Chapter 10 Compulsory Measures against Obstruction of Civil Actions

第一百条 【拘传适用】人民法院对必须到庭的被告,经两次传票传唤,无正当理由拒不到庭的,可以拘传。

Article 100 If a defendant who is required to appear in court has been served twice with subpoena but still refuses to appear in court without legitimate reason, the people’s court may summon him to court by force.

第一百零一条 【强制措施之一】诉讼参与人和其他人应当遵守法庭规则。

人民法院对违反法庭规则的人,可以予以训诫,责令退出法庭或者予以罚款、拘留。

人民法院对哄闹、冲击法庭,侮辱、诽谤、威胁、殴打审判人员,严重扰乱法庭秩序的人,依法追究刑事责任;情节较轻的,予以罚款、拘留。

Article 101 All litigation participants and other persons shall abide by the court rules.

For those persons who violate the court rules, the people’s courts may reprimand them, evict them from the courts, or impose a fine or detention on them.

For those persons who create uproars, disturb courtrooms, insult, slander, threat, or assault adjudicating personnel, or seriously disrupt the order of courtrooms, the people’s court shall investigate them for criminal liabilities according to law; if the circumstances are minor, a fine or detention may be imposed on the offender.

第一百零二条 【强制措施之二】诉讼参与人或者其他人有下列行为之一的,人民法院可以根据情节轻重予以罚款、拘留;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任:

(一)伪造、毁灭重要证据,妨碍人民法院审理案件的;

(二)以暴力、威胁、贿买方法阻止证人作证或者指使、贿买、胁迫他人作伪证的;

(三)隐藏、转移、变卖、毁损已被查封、扣押的财产,或者已被清点并责令其保管的财产,转移已被冻结的财产的;

(四)对司法工作人员、诉讼参加人、证人、翻译人员、鉴定人、勘验人、协助执行的人,进行侮辱、诽谤、诬陷、殴打或者打击报复的;

(五)以暴力、威胁或者其他方法阻碍司法工作人员执行职务的;

(六)拒不履行人民法院已经发生法律效力的判决、裁定的。

人民法院对有前款规定的行为之一的单位,可以对其主要负责人或者直接责任人员予以罚款、拘留;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。

Article 102 Where any litigation participants or any other persons commit any of the following acts, the people’s courts shall impose a fine or detention on them based on the circumstances; if a crime is committed, the people’s court shall investigate them for criminal liabilities according to law.

(1)Forging or destroying significant evidence, which would obstruct the a people’s court’s adjudication of a case;

(2)Using violence, threats, or bribery to hinder a witness from giving testimony, or instigating, bribing, or coercing others to commit perjury;

(3)Concealing, transferring, selling, or destroying any properties that have been seized or detained, or any properties that have been inventoried and ordered by a court under the offenders’ custody, or transferring the property that has been frozen;

(4)Insulting, slandering, incriminating with false charges, beating up, or retaliating adjudicating personnel, litigation participants, witnesses, interpreters, experts witnesses, inspectors, or personnel assisting in enforcement; or

(5)Using violence, threats, or other means to hinder adjudicating personnel from performing their duties; or

(6)Refusing to comply with legally effective judgments or orders rendered by a people’s court.

Where a unit commits any of the following acts stipulated in the preceding paragraph, the people’s courts may impose a fine or detention on the principal leading personnel of the unit or the person directly responsible; if a crime is committed, the people’s court shall investigate them for criminal liabilities according to law.

第一百零三条 【强制措施之三】有义务协助调查、执行的单位有下列行为之一的,人民法院除责令其履行协助义务外,并可以予以罚款:

(一)有关单位拒绝或者妨碍人民法院调查取证的;

(二)银行、信用合作社和其他有储蓄业务的单位接到人民法院协助执行通知书后,拒不协助查询、冻结或者划拨存款的;

(三)有关单位接到人民法院协助执行通知书后,拒不协助扣留被执行人的收入、办理有关财产权证照转移手续、转交有关票证、证照或者其他财产的;

(四)其他拒绝协助执行的。

人民法院对有前款规定的行为之一的单位,可以对其主要负责人或者直接责任人员予以罚款;对仍不履行协助义务的,可以予以拘留;并可以向监察机关或者有关机关提出予以纪律处分的司法建议。

Article 103 If a unit that has an obligation to assist in judicial investigation or enforcement commits any of the following acts, the people’s court may order the unit to perform its obligation but also impose a fine on the unit:

(1)Refusing or obstructing a people’s court from investigation or collecting evidence;

(2)Where the unit is a bank, credit union, or other institution engaging in saving deposit business, refusing to assist in inquiring, freezing, or transferring funds after receiving a notification from the people’s court for enforcement assistance;

(3)After receiving a notification on assistance in enforcement from the people’s court, refusing to assist in withholding the income of a defending party whom is ordered to pay or handling the transfer of property titles, relevant negotiable instruments, certificates and licenses, or other properties; or

(4)Refusing to provide other assistance in enforcement order by court.

With respect to a unit that commits any of the acts specified in the preceding paragraph, the people’s court may impose a fine on the principal leading personnel of the unit or the person directly responsible; and may detain them if they still fail to perform the obligation to provide assistance; and may also make judicial suggestions to the supervisory organ or other relevant organs on imposing a disciplinary sanction on the unit.

第一百零四条 【罚款、拘留适用】对个人的罚款金额,为人民币一万元以下。对单位的罚款金额,为人民币一万元以上三十万元以下。

拘留的期限,为十五日以下。

被拘留的人,由人民法院交公安机关看管。在拘留期间,被拘留人承认并改正错误的,人民法院可以决定提前解除拘留。

Article 104 A fine on an individual shall be not more than Renminbi 10, 000 Yuan. A fine on a unit shall be not less than Renminbi 10,000 Yuan and not more than Renminbi 300,000 Yuan.

A detention period shall not be longer than fifteen days.

The people’s court shall deliver detainees to a public security organ for custody. The people’s court may decide to grant the detainee an early release if he admits and is willing to correct his wrongdoing.

第一百零五条 【强制措施程序】拘传、罚款、拘留必须经院长批准。

拘传应当发拘传票。

罚款、拘留应当用决定书。对决定不服的,可以向上一级人民法院申请复议一次。复议期间不停止执行。

Article 105 Any summons by force, fines, or detentions shall be approved by the president of a people’s court.

A warrant shall be issued before carrying out a summon by force.

The rulings of fines and detentions shall be issued in written letter form. If a party does not agree with a decision, he may apply to a people’s court at a higher level for reconsideration and the reconsideration can be granted only once. However, the enforcement of the decision shall not be suspended during the time of reconsideration.

第一百零六条 【强制措施决定权】采取对妨害民事诉讼的强制措施必须由人民法院决定。任何单位和个人采取非法拘禁他人或者非法私自扣押他人财产追索债务的,应当依法追究刑事责任,或者予以拘留、罚款。

Article 106 Any decision on the adoption of compulsory measures against obstruction of civil actions shall be made by the people’s court. Any unit or individual pressing a debt payment by unlawfully detaining a person or illegally seizing other people’s property shall be investigated for criminal liabilities according to law or may be punished by detention or fine.

第十一章 诉讼费用

Chapter 11 Litigation Expenses

第一百零七条 【诉讼费用的交纳】当事人进行民事诉讼,应当按照规定交纳案件受理费。财产案件除交纳案件受理费外,并按照规定交纳其他诉讼费用。

当事人交纳诉讼费用确有困难的,可以按照规定向人民法院申请缓交、减交或者免交。

收取诉讼费用的办法另行制定。

Article 107 Any party filing a civil lawsuit shall pay a case handling fee according to relevant regulations. For cases involving property, the party shall pay other litigation expenses, in addition to case handling fee.

Parties who truly have difficulties to pay litigation expenses may, according to relevant regulations, petition the people’s court to postpone, reduce, or wave the payment.

Procedures for the payment of litigation expenses shall be formulated separately.

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